Frequently Asked Questions About the COVID-19 Vaccine
These are answers to COVID-19 vaccine questions for residents and workers in the Eastern Ontario Health Unit (EOHU) region.
If you wish to speak to a qualified professional about your questions regarding the COVID-19 vaccine, you can Book a VaxFacts appointment at 416-438-2911 ext. 5738 or click here.
- What COVID-19 vaccines are currently approved and available in Ontario?
- Are vaccines interchangeable?
- What is an mRNA vaccine?
- Is the COVID-19 vaccine mandatory?
- Can I still get or transmit COVID-19 after being vaccinated?
- Why should I get vaccinated if COVID-19 infection has a high survival rate?
- If I tested positive for COVID-19 in the past, should I still get the vaccine?
- Are the existing vaccines effective against the new variants of COVID-19?
- Why do some populations have a shortened interval between vaccines?
- What is considered fully vaccinated?
- How do I know if I’m up to date with my COVID-19 vaccines?
- Is the vaccine safe?
- What are the most common side effects from the COVID-19 vaccine?
- Are there any serious side effects?
- Can I get COVID-19 from the shot?
- Will the COVID vaccine change my DNA?
- I am pregnant. Can I get the COVID-19 vaccine?
- Who should not get the vaccine?
- If I had a reaction to a different vaccine in the past, can I still get the COVID-19 vaccine?
- Should I get the COVID-19 vaccine if I have food or seasonal allergies?
- I just got vaccinated for something else. Can I still get the COVID-19 vaccine now?
- Should we be concerned about myocarditis and/or pericarditis following a mRNA COVID-19 vaccine?
- What is the bivalent vaccine? How is it different from the other vaccines?
- Are bivalent vaccines a new type of vaccine?
- Can I get the bivalent COVID-19 vaccine as my first or second dose?
- When should I get the bivalent COVID-19 vaccine?
- How can I book an appointment?
- When will I be able to get the COVID-19 vaccine?
- Should I wait for my preferred choice of vaccine?
- Who is eligible for a third or fourth dose?
General questions about the COVID-19 vaccine
What COVID-19 vaccines are currently approved and available in Ontario?
- Moderna’s Spikevax vaccine for individuals aged 6 months and older
- Moderna's bivalent booster vaccine for individuals aged 18 years and older (and immunocompromised individuals aged 12 and older)
- Pfizer-BioNTech’s Comirnaty vaccine for individuals aged 5 years and older
- Janssen’s (Johnson & Johnson) vaccine for individuals aged 18 years and older
- Novavax’s Nuvaxovid vaccine for individuals aged 18 years and older
Are vaccines interchangeable?
Yes. The Pfizer-BioNTech and the Moderna vaccines can be administered interchangeably in individuals aged 6 and over (one for the first dose and another for the second, third or fourth) safely, without increased risk or decreased efficacy of the vaccine. They can both also be received safely as a second dose by individuals who received the AstraZeneca vaccine for their first dose.
The Provincial Booking System no longer specifies the type of vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna) to be administered when booking an appointment. Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are administered at COVID-19 vaccination clinics throughout the EOHU region. Depending on vaccine availability at the time of the appointment, individuals attending clinics may not receive the same vaccine they received in previous doses. Rest assured that the best vaccine to receive is the first one that is available for your age group.
What is an mRNA vaccine?
mRNA vaccines are a new type of vaccine; however, researchers have been studying and working with these vaccines for quite some time. mRNA vaccines teach our cells how to make a protein that will trigger an immune response. Once triggered, our body then makes antibodies. These antibodies help us fight the infection if the real virus does enter our body in the future.
Like all vaccines, people who are vaccinated gain protection without ever having to risk the serious consequences of getting sick from being exposed to the virus. People also can't get COVID-19 from the vaccine itself. mRNA vaccines do not use the live virus that causes COVID-19.
Both the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines are mRNA vaccines.
Is the COVID-19 vaccine mandatory?
The COVID-19 vaccine is not mandatory; however, it is strongly recommended to help protect against the COVID-19 virus, especially for those who are at higher risk of serious illness or death, and for those who work directly with vulnerable people. In addition, some workplaces may have policies that require workers to be vaccinated.
Can I still get or transmit COVID-19 after being vaccinated?
While you can still get COVID-19 after being vaccinated, the vaccines are shown to reduce the symptoms and the severity of illness related to COVID-19.
This in turn reduces transmission because, with most variants, vaccinated individuals who get infected tend to have a smaller amount of the virus present in their bodies and release less of it while they talk, exhale or do other normal daily activities. It is important to continue taking public health measures such as hand washing and staying home if you are sick.
Why should I get vaccinated if COVID-19 infection has a high survival rate?
COVID-19 can be a serious illness for many people. It is also possible to be re-infected with a different variant of COVID-19 after a COVID-19 infection. Some variants are more transmissible; therefore it is important to stay up to date with COVID-19 vaccination by receiving all doses recommended.
For some people, symptoms can last for months. These people are called long haulers. The virus can even damage the heart, brain and lungs and increase the risk of long-term health problems. Even young, healthy people can feel unwell for weeks to months following the COVID-19 infection.
The short-term side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine are less than the risk and potential long-term health damage caused by the COVID-19 virus.
If I tested positive for COVID-19 in the past, should I still get the vaccine?
Yes. You will have some immunity from your infection, but no one knows how long it will last. There are cases where people have gotten COVID-19 again before they could get vaccinated. You should not get the vaccine if you are sick or have COVID-19 right now. Wait until you are better to get the shot.
Individuals 6 months of age and older, infected* with COVID-19 before completing their primary series, are recommended to receive their next dose 8 weeks after symptom onset or positive test, or 4-8 weeks if moderately to severely immunocompromised with no history of MIS-C, or 90+ days since the onset of MIS-C for any individual 5 years of age and over with a history of MIS-C, regardless of immunocompromised status. For more information about COVID-19 vaccines for children, have a look at Ask Dr. Paul: COVID-19 Vaccines for Children.
Individuals 12 years of age and older, infected* with COVID-19 after their primary series but before a booster (third or fourth, if eligible) dose, are recommended to receive their booster (third or fourth, if eligible) dose 3 months after symptom onset or positive test (if asymptomatic) and, for 12 to 17 years olds, provided it is at least 6 months from completing the primary series. As per NACI, emerging evidence indicates that a longer interval between SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination is associated with improved antibody responses to COVID-19 vaccines.
With informed consent, individuals may receive a booster dose once they are asymptomatic and have completed their isolation. To know more: COVID-19 Vaccine Administration.
*A previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 is defined as a COVID-19 case confirmed by a molecular (e.g., PCR) or rapid antigen test, or symptomatic AND a household contact of a confirmed COVID-19 case.
Are the existing vaccines effective against the new variants of COVID-19?
The vaccines have been shown to be effective against the new variants for individuals who are up to date with their vaccination. Receiving boosters is highly recommended to provide an improved immune response against COVID-19 and its variants.
The vaccines are shown to reduce the symptoms and severity of illness in individuals who are up to date with their vaccination. This in turn reduces transmission because, with most variants, those who get infected tend to have a smaller amount of the virus present in their bodies and release less of it while they talk, exhale or do other normal daily activities.
Why do some populations have a shortened interval between vaccines?
There are some populations who need the additional increase in protection by receiving their COVID-19 dose at a shortened interval. These groups may be at higher risk because they have specific medical conditions, live in a congregate setting with other high-risk individuals (e.g. long-term care homes), or live in communities that are very challenging to reach with medical care.
The National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) recommends that the following populations receive their doses at a shortened interval:
- Residents of long-term care homes, retirement homes, elder care lodges and assisted living facilities
- Transplant recipients (including solid organ transplants and hematopoietic stem cell transplants)
- Individuals with malignant hematologic disorders and non-hematologic malignant solid tumors receiving active treatment (chemotherapy, targeted therapies, immunotherapy), excluding individuals receiving solely hormonal therapy or radiation therapy
- Individuals undergoing hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis
- First Nations and Indigenous populations, and their partners and household members (including non-Indigenous partners and household members) at the interval indicated in the product monograph
What is considered fully vaccinated?
An individual is considered fully vaccinated 14 days after having received one of the following:
- The full series of a COVID-19 vaccine authorized by Health Canada, or any combination of such vaccines, or
- One or two doses of a COVID-19 vaccine not authorized by Health Canada, followed by one dose of a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine authorized by Health Canada, or
- Three doses of a COVID-19 vaccine not authorized by Health Canada.
However, the protection offered by COVID-19 vaccines decreases over time, requiring the need to receive booster doses. It is therefore highly recommended that individuals stay up to date with their vaccination to maintain a high level of protection against COVID-19.
How do I know if I’m up to date with my COVID-19 vaccines?
While the COVID-19 vaccines authorized by Health Canada all provide a high level of protection against illness and hospitalization from COVID-19, the level of protection they provide decreases over time, especially in older individuals.
This means that receiving a primary series of a COVID-19 vaccine is simply not enough to protect you over time from COVID-19 and its variants like Omicron. It is therefore recommended that individuals stay up to date with their vaccination by receiving all recommended booster doses for which they’re eligible.
Click here for more information about the booster doses you're eligible for, depending on your age, health status, and which vaccines you have received.
Questions about COVID-19 vaccine safety
Is the vaccine safe?
Yes, all vaccines in use in Canada have been approved by Health Canada. Health Canada only approves a vaccine if very robust scientific data and evidence show that it is both safe and effective. After approval, Health Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada continue to monitor the ongoing safety and effectiveness of all approved vaccines in Canada.
For detailed information on the vaccine and the evidence behind the vaccine approval process, visit the Government of Canada’s website.
What are the most common side effects from the COVID-19 vaccine?
Some people may experience side effects from the vaccine, but these will likely be mild to moderate and resolve after a few days. The most common side effects include pain at the injection site, headache, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, chills and fever.
It is important to receive all recommended doses even if you experience mild or moderate side effects.
Are there any serious side effects?
Serious side effects are very rare. They include:
- Swelling of mouth and throat
- Trouble breathing, hoarseness or wheezing
- Fever over 40C or 104F
- Very rarely, the AstraZeneca vaccine has been associated with a rare form of blood clotting after vaccination (called vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia, or VITT). Symptoms include:
- Shortness of breath
- Chest pain
- Leg swelling
- Persistent abdominal pain
- Sudden onset of severe or persistent worsening headaches or blurred vision
- Skin bruising (other than at the site of vaccination)
- Very rare cases of myocarditis and pericarditis following vaccination with COVID-19 mRNA vaccines have been reported. Symptoms include:
- Chest pain
- Shortness of breath
- Palpitations, or feeling a rapid or abnormal heart rhythm
If you experience serious side effects, you should seek medical help immediately. Do not get a second dose or a booster dose of the vaccine if you have serious side effects following the first dose. Speak to your healthcare provider for advice.
Can I get COVID-19 from the shot?
No. There is no live COVID-19 in the vaccine.
Will the COVID vaccine change my DNA?
No, the vaccine does not and cannot change your DNA in any way.
I am pregnant. Can I get the COVID-19 vaccine?
If you are pregnant, you may choose to receive the COVID-19 vaccine at any time during your pregnancy. It is recommended, but not required, that you discuss the vaccine with your treating healthcare provider, or with a healthcare provider familiar with your pregnancy. However, a letter from a healthcare provider is not required for vaccination.
To help you decide, see this resource from the Provincial Council for Maternal and Child Health.
If you are pregnant and under 18 years old, please contact your primary care provider or call the health unit at 613-933-1375 or 1-800-267-7120 to discuss what is the best option for you.
Who should not get the vaccine?
The following people should not get the COVID-19 vaccine:
- People who have allergies to the COVID-19 vaccine ingredients should consult their health care provider for an assessment.
- People who have had a serious allergic reaction to the COVID-19 vaccine (first dose) should not receive a second dose or booster dose of the COVID-19 vaccine until they have been advised by public health.
- Children between the ages of 6 months to 5 years must wait for a period of 14 days before or after receiving a different vaccine to receive Moderna’s COVID-19 vaccine. However, a shorter interval between Moderna's COVID-19 vaccine and the administration of other vaccines may be recommended in certain circumstances, at the discretion of the child's health care provider.
- Anyone who is sick or has COVID-19 should wait to receive the vaccine.
Individuals with compromised immune systems or autoimmune disease are strongly encouraged to speak with their treating health care provider regarding timing of vaccination in relation to therapy or treatment for their condition.
For more information, see COVID-19 Vaccination Recommendations for Special Populations.
If I had a reaction to a different vaccine in the past, can I still get the COVID-19 vaccine?
Check with your doctor or healthcare provider if you have had a serious allergic reaction to a vaccine in the past. They will look at your medical records and help you make the decision.
Should I get the COVID-19 vaccine if I have food or seasonal allergies?
Please talk with your physician or healthcare provider to learn if it is safe for you to receive the COVID-19 vaccine.
I just got vaccinated for something else. Can I still get the COVID-19 vaccine now?
For adults and children aged 5 and older, the National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) recommends that COVID-19 vaccines may be given at the same time as, or any time before or after, the flu shot or other vaccines, including live, non-live, adjuvanted or unadjuvanted vaccines. Please note that in the case of children who are 5 years old, this recommendation only applies to individuals who receive Pfizer’s COVID-19 vaccine.
At this time, the recommendations for children aged 6 months to 5 years who receive Moderna’s vaccine are different. NACI recommends that, if possible, children between the ages of 6 months and 5 years should not receive Moderna's COVID-19 vaccine within 14 days of other vaccines. This is a precaution to monitor any side effects from the COVID-19 vaccine or another vaccine. However, in some cases, your child’s healthcare provider may recommend a vaccine that’s needed urgently. This may happen even if your child has received the COVID-19 vaccine in the past 2 weeks.
Should we be concerned about myocarditis and/or pericarditis following a mRNA COVID-19 vaccine?
Cases of myocarditis and/or pericarditis following immunization with COVID-19 vaccines have been reported in a small number of people in Canada and internationally. These reports are very rare and investigations into the association between myocarditis/pericarditis and mRNA vaccines continue.
Health Canada reassures Canadians that COVID-19 vaccines continue to be safe and effective at protecting them against COVID-19. The benefits of COVID-19 vaccines continue to outweigh their potential risks, as scientific evidence shows that they reduce deaths and hospitalizations due to COVID-19. The Government of Canada encourages people to get vaccinated and to complete their vaccine series as soon as they are eligible.
Consult the Advisory: https://healthycanadians.gc.ca/recall-alert-rappel-avis/hc-sc/2021/75959a-eng.php
Questions about the bivalent vaccine
What is the bivalent vaccine? How is it different from the other vaccines?
Bivalent vaccines protect against two strains of a virus, or two different viruses, rather than using separate vaccines for each. The Moderna bivalent COVID-19 vaccine is formulated including both the original strain of the COVID-19 virus, and the Omicron BA1 variant, and will help provide more protection against infection and serious illness and complications from COVID-19 infection. Preliminary study results indicate that the bivalent vaccine will also provide protection against the BA4 and BA5 Omicron subvariants. The original Moderna and Pfizer vaccines are monovalent, as they only contain the original strain of COVID-19.
Are bivalent vaccines a new type of vaccine?
Bivalent, and other multivalent vaccines are not new technology and have been around for decades. Bivalent and multivalent vaccines are a safe and effective way to protect against multiple viruses or strains of a virus in one vaccine. You have probably received at least one type of bivalent or multivalent vaccine already! Some multivalent vaccines you may be more familiar with include the MMR or MMRV vaccines (which protect against measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (chicken pox)), the DTaP and Tdap vaccines (which protect against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis), and even the flu vaccine (which can protect against multiple strains of flu viruses).
Can I get the bivalent COVID-19 vaccine as my first or second dose?
No. At this time, the bivalent COVID-19 vaccine is only available as a booster dose for individuals 18 and older, and immunocompromised individuals 12 and older. First and second doses will continue to be the Pfizer and Moderna monovalent vaccines.
When should I get the bivalent COVID-19 vaccine?
Like with other booster doses, it is recommended you wait 6 months from your last dose, and a minimum of 3 months before you receive the bivalent COVID-19 vaccine. If you have recently had COVID-19, you should wait 3 months from your infection to receive your next dose.
To help prevent severe illness and complications from COVID-19, it’s recommended you get your next dose as soon as you are eligible.
How can I book an appointment?
Appointments can be booked through the provincial booking system or by calling the Provincial Vaccine Contact Centre at 1-833-943-3900, starting September 12 at 8 a.m. Appointment dates are available for the following groups:
For appointments starting September 12:
- Individuals 70 and older
- Health care providers 18 and older
- Long term care homes, congregate living situations
- Immunocompromised individuals 12 and older
- Pregnant individuals 18 and older
- First Nations, Indigenous and Métis individuals, 18 and older and their household members who are 18 and older
For appointments starting September 26:
- Individuals 18 and older
Health care workers and pregnant individuals need to call the Provincial Vaccine Contact Centre at 1-833-943-3900 to book an appointment for dates between September 12 and 25.
Questions about how and when the vaccine is being distributed
When will I be able to get the COVID-19 vaccine?
COVID-19 vaccines are currently available to all eligible individuals 6 months of age or older. For more information on staying up to date with the COVID-19 vaccines, please refer to: Staying Up to Date with COVID-19 Vaccines: Recommended Doses. Pfizer vaccines have been authorized for individuals aged 5 and older, and Moderna vaccines have been authorized for individuals aged 6 months and older, and can be given with informed parental consent.
Third and fourth doses of the COVID-19 vaccine are also currently available. For the latest updates on who is eligible for a booster, see Who is eligible for a third or fourth dose?
Consult the How and Where to Get a COVID-19 Vaccine page for information on vaccination clinic locations and times throughout the EOHU region. COVID-19 vaccines are also available at participating pharmacies.
Should I wait for my preferred choice of vaccine?
No. All COVID-19 vaccines that have been approved by Health Canada are effective. It is important to get the vaccine which is recommended for you and for which you are eligible, when it is offered to you – regardless of brand or type.