Community Health Status Report 2019

Introduction

The Board of Health is required, under the Ontario Health Protection and Promotion Act, to regularly review the community’s health status. This enables the Health Unit and its partners to consider the features and needs of its community in the planning and design of health protection and promotion programs and services. The community health status assessment normally includes data on socio-demographics, mortality, reproductive outcomes, and health risk behaviours status.

The 2019 health status report focuses on the socio-demographic and economic conditions of the Eastern Ontario Health Unit catchment area, and how these conditions compare to other jurisdictions. The Eastern Ontario Health Unit catchment area includes the United Counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry (SDG), which includes the City of Cornwall, the United Counties of Prescott and Russell, (UCPR) which includes the Town of Hawkesbury, and Akwesasne. The information is derived mainly from data in the 2016 Canadian Census (Statistics Canada).

Both individual and population health and illness are transitional states; they represent the outcome of numerous interactions between many biological, behavioural, environmental and socio-economic factors. Across the globe, population health is shaped by the Social Determinants of Health and their inter-dependence to one another. These determinants are the non-health factors that influence health and are derived from socio-economic, demographic, and environmental factors, geo-political conditions, and climate change.

The primary factors that shape the health of Canadians are not medical interventions or lifestyle choices, but rather the living conditions that they experience (Mikkonon and Raphael, 2010). Poverty causes ill health, which in turn perpetuates poverty. This cycle contributes to health inequalities and health inequities. People living in poverty experience a double deficit, a shorter and less healthy life. Despite universal agreement that health inequities are unacceptable and require urgent action, the gap in health status between the most affluent and the most disadvantaged has widened in recent years. Socio-economic conditions provide or deny opportunities for individuals to adopt healthy lifestyles. Population groups with low levels of income and education who are living in poor or precarious housing conditions, suffer more from ill-health than those at the top of the socio-economic scale.

Materials in this report may be reproduced with appropriate credit to the Eastern Ontario Health Unit. Readers seeking further information on community health are invited to contact the Eastern Ontario Health Unit.

Dr. Paul Roumeliotis, MD, CM, MPH, FRCP(C). CCPE

Medical Officer of Health and Chief Executive Officer

Data Sources

Data sources for the Health Status Report commissioned by the Eastern Ontario Health Unit (2019) include a large set of national and regional data sources such as:

  • Census of Canada – Statistics Canada
  • IntelliHEALTH Database – Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHLTC)
  • integrated Public Health Information System (iPHIS) – Public Health Agency of Canada/Ontario MOHLTC
  • Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) – Statistics Canada
  • Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR) – Cancer Care Ontario (CCO)
  • Rapid Risk Factors Surveillance System (RRFSS), Ontario, Canada – Institute for Social Research (ISR) at York University
  • Local Data – Eastern Ontario Health Unit – Youth Risk Behaviour Survey (YRBS)

A note to the reader: In some data tables, you may notice that adding up the value of individual cells in any column or row does not produce the expected total. Statistics Canadxa rounds the numbers to the nearest 0 or 5 in the individual cells of data tables. We appreciate your understanding and apologize for any inconvenience this may cause.

Demographic and Socioeconomic Features

Catchment Area

The catchment area for the Eastern Ontario Health Unit (EOHU) is nestled in the easternmost part of the province of Ontario, along the Seaway Valley, east and southeast of the National Capital Region. It is bordered by the St-Lawrence River and the US borders to the south. It extends to the provincial borders with Quebec to the east and northeast (Figure 1). It covers the United Counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry (UC-SDG), which includes the City of Cornwall, and the United Counties of Prescott and Russell (UC-PR), which includes the Town of Hawkesbury, and Akwesasne. The land area for this region is approximately 5,308 square kilometres.

Population

The 2016 census indicates that the target population for the EOHU is about 202,762 residents distributed among 15 municipalities, or Census Subdivisions (CSD), that vary in area size and population. In turn, the CSD in this region can be grouped into five counties: Stormont, Dundas, Glengarry, Prescott, and Russell. The CSD can also be grouped into two Census Divisions (CD): the UC-SDG, and the UC-PR. Three major urban centres exist in the EOHU region: the City of Cornwall and the Towns of Hawkesbury and Clarence-Rockland; most of the remaining municipalities are rural in nature. For all statistical tables or figures in this report, Stormont Dundas and Glengarry includes Cornwall data and Prescott Russell includes Hawkesbury data even when the specific region is given individually.

Figure 1: The Location of the Catchment Area for the Eastern Ontario Health Unit

Figure 1: The Location of the Catchment Area for the Eastern Ontario Health Unit

Population Distribution

The overall population density for the EOHU catchment area is 38 per square kilometre. The City of Cornwall and the Town of Hawkesbury have the highest population densities in the region with 757 and 1067 per square kilometre respectively. On the other hand, North Stormont and Eastern Hawkesbury have the lowest population densities in the region with 13 and 14 per square kilometre respectively (Table 1).

Population Distribution and Population Change, EOHU and Ontario
Population Population 2016 Land area / Km² Population density / Km²
Cornwall 46589 62 757
South Stormont 13110 448 29
North Stormont 6873 516 13
South Dundas 10833 521 21
North Dundas 11278 503 22
South Glengarry 13150 605 22
North Glengarry 10109 643 16
Hawkesbury 10263 10 1067
East Hawkesbury 3296 235 14
Champlain 8706 207 42
Alfred & Plantagenet 9680 392 25
The Nation Municipality 12808 658 19
Clarence-Rockland 24512 298 82
Casselman 3548 5 693
Russell TP 16520 199 83
Akwesasne (Part 59) 1487 12 125
UC-SDG 113429 3310 34
UC-PR 89333 2004 45
EOHU 202762 5314 38
Ontario 13448494 908699 15

Table 1: Population Distribution and Population Change, EOHU and Ontario

Population Structure by Age and Sex

The age structure for a population can be influenced by many socio-demographic conditions such as fertility, mortality, migration, employment and geo-political environment. The population pyramid in Figure 2 reveals the age-structure (five-year age groups) for the target population in 2016. Please note that in Figure 2, the bars represent the EOHU population, while the lines represent the Ontario population. Comparison of both population structures shows that, as compared to Ontario, the EOHU serves an older population. There is a smaller population in the 0-49 years age groups whereas the 50+years age groups are more populous than Ontario’s. A table with the data at the municipal level in the EOHU catchment area is shown in the appendix. Recently this trend has slightly reversed, as the proportion of children in the 0-9 years age groups is similar to Ontario’s.

At the local level, there are discrepancies in the population structure. For instance, the proportion of seniors (65 years and over) is higher in the Town of Hawkesbury than in the rest of the region, especially for females. Looking at the family age group, the Nation municipality has a higher proportion of adults aged 25-39 with children aged 0-4. Similarly, Russell Township has the highest proportion of adults aged 40-54 with children aged 5-19. On the other hand, the City of Cornwall has the lowest proportion of adults aged 40-54.

Figure 2: Population Pyramid for the Eastern Ontario Health Unit Catchment Area

Figure 2: Population Pyramid for the Eastern Ontario Health Unit Catchment Area

Population Change

During each of the previous two inter-censal intervals (2006 to 2011 and 2011 to 2016), the Ontario population increased by more than 10%. The overall EOHU population follows the same trend, but at a lower rate (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Change of Population from 2006-2016, EOHU and Ontario

Figure 3: Change of Population from 2006-2016, EOHU and Ontario

Population change varied significantly across the EOHU region. The UC-PR lead in population growth between 2011 and 2016, matching Ontario’s growth rate of 4.6%, as compared to only 2.0% for the UC-SDG. Within the EOHU’s catchment area, The Nation Municipality led population growth, with a rate of 9.8%, whereas Hawkesbury had the lowest growth rate with a 2.7% population loss. The municipality of North Glengarry within the UC-SDG has continued to experience population loss since 1996. (Table 2 and Figure 4).

Population and % of Population Change, EOHU and Ontario, 2011 to 2016
Population and % of
Population Change
2011 2016 Change % 2011-2016
Cornwall 46340 46589 0.5%
South Stormont 12617 13110 3.9%
North Stormont 6775 6873 1.4%
South Dundas 10794 10833 0.4%
North Dundas 11225 11278 0.5%
South Glengarry 13162 13150 -0.1%
North Glengarry 10251 10109 -1.4%
Hawkesbury 10551 10263 -2.7%
East Hawkesbury 3335 3296 -1.2%
Champlain 8573 8706 1.6%
Alfred & Plantagenet 9196 9680 5.3%
The Nation Municipality 11668 12808 9.8%
Clarence-Rockland 23185 24512 5.7%
Casselman 3626 3548 -2.2%
Russell TP 15247 16520 8.3%
UC-SDG 111164 113429 2.0%
UC-PR 85381 89333 4.6%
EOHU 196545 202762 3.2%
Ontario 12851821 13448494 4.6%


Table 2: Population and % of Population Change, EOHU and Ontario, 2011 to 2016

Figure 4: Population Change in 2011-2016

Figure 4: Population Change in 2011-2016

Population Changes in Children

The age group contributing the most to population growth in the EOHU’s catchment area are children aged 0-9. Figure 5 shows a net increase of 7.6% in the EOHU area for young children aged 0-9 years old. The increase is greater in the UC-PR (8.9%) than in the UC-SDG (6.5%). Likewise, Ontario experienced a net population growth amongst this age group during the period of 2011-2016, although with a smaller increase.

Figure 5: Population Change by Age Group (0-9), EOHU and Ontario

Figure 5: Population Change by Age Group (0-9), EOHU and Ontario

However, when we break it down to the very young (0-4 years old vs 5-9 years old), we see that the greatest increase is in the 5-9 years old age group (see Figure 6). Our rates compare favourably to those of Ontario, which has experienced a decline in the 0-4 years old age group and a smaller growth in the 5-9 years old age group.

Figure 6: Population Change by Age Group (0-4 and 5-9), EOHU and Ontario

Figure 6: Population Change by Age Group (0-4 and 5-9), EOHU and Ontario


Aging Population

The Town of Hawkesbury, and the Townships of North and South Glengarry have the highest concentrations of seniors as compared with the EOHU catchment area and the province. The Township of Russell, The Nation Municipality, and Akwesasne, however, have maintained the lowest proportion of seniors (see Figure 7).

Figure 7: Proportion of People Aged 65 and Over, EOHU and Ontario, 2016

Figure 7: Proportion of People Aged 65 and Over, EOHU and Ontario, 2016

The proportion of seniors among the general population in 2016 has increased in both Ontario and the EOHU catchment area as compared to 2011 by 1% and 3% respectively. In 2016, within the EOHU region, the highest proportion is in the Town of Hawkesbury (27.3%) and the lowest is in Russell County (12.6%). The Town of Hawkesbury also had the largest increase (3.9%) from 2011 to 2016 (Figure 8).

Figure 8: Seniors Aged 65 and Over, EOHU and Ontario, 2011-2016

Figure 8: Seniors Aged 65 and Over, EOHU and Ontario, 2011-2016

Family

Census Families

In 2016, there were 60,605 census families in the catchment area of the EOHU. This represents a 3.7% increase over the number of families in 2011, which is slightly lower than the increase seen for Ontario (4.5%). Across the five counties in the EOHU region, family distribution proportionately mirrors the general population distribution. Within the EOHU’s jurisdiction, the highest proportion of census families resides in the City of Cornwall (21.7%), while Clarence-Rockland follows at 12.3%.

Table 3 indicates the proportion of different types of families. The number of lone-parent families throughout the region remained somewhat stable, with minimal increases.

Proportion of Different Types of Census Families in Private Households, 2011-2016
2011

Total Number of Census Families in Private Households

Total Couple Families Married Couples Common-Law Couples Total - Lone-Parent Census Families Female Parent Male Parent
Ontario 3612205 83.3% 86.9% 13.1% 16.7% 13.5% 3.3%
EOHU 58375 85.6% 80.0% 20.0% 14.3% 11.0% 3.4%
UC-SDG 32840 84.8% 82.4% 17.6% 15.2% 11.9% 3.3%
UC-PR 25535 86.8% 77.1% 22.9% 13.2% 9.7% 3.5%
Cornwall 13145 79.1% 78.6% 21.4% 20.9% 17.0% 4.0%
Hawkesbury 3035 76.8% 70.6% 29.4% 23.1% 18.6% 4.4%
2016
Ontario 3782545 82.9% 71.0% 12.0% 17.1% 13.7% 3.3%
EOHU 60605 85.2% 66.5% 18.7% 14.8% 11.2% 3.6%
UC-SDG 33640 84.1% 67.4% 16.7% 15.9% 12.3% 3.6%
UC-PR 26965 86.6% 65.4% 21.2% 13.4% 9.8% 3.6%
Cornwall 13155 78.4% 60.0% 18.5% 21.6% 17.4% 4.2%
Hawkesbury 2870 76.3% 52.8% 23.5% 23.7% 19.0% 4.9%


Table 3: Proportion of Different Types of Census Families in Private Households, 2011-2016

Lone-Parent Families

There are two ways to measure lone-parent families. The first one is by comparing the number of lone-parent families to the total number of Census families in private households (which includes families with and without children), whereas the second one is the proportion of lone-parent families among census families with children. The latter will be the one used in Table 4 and Figure 9.

In 2016, 27.9% of all “census families with children” in the EOHU catchment area were single-parent families, which is very similar to the rate of 27.4% for the province. These rates have remained stable since 2011. However, there are geographical variations across the EOHU area: in Akwesasne, 50% of all families are headed by a lone parent, with Hawkesbury a close second at 48%.

Proportion of Single Parent Families among Census Families with Children, EOHU, Ontario and Canada, 2016
# Families with Children (Couple with Children + Total LPF) Lone-Parent Families # Female # Male # Lone-Parent Families % Female % Male %
South Stormont 2095 450 325 125 21.5% 15.5% 6.0%
North Stormont 1130 205 140 65 18.1% 12.4% 5.8%
South Dundas 1615 455 340 120 28.2% 21.1% 7.4%
North Dundas 1800 435 345 90 24.2% 19.2% 5.0%
South Glengarry 1905 390 275 110 20.5% 14.4% 5.8%
North Glengarry 1470 415 305 105 28.2% 20.7% 7.1%
East Hawkesbury 515 110 75 35 21.4% 14.6% 6.8%
Champlain 1265 300 195 100 23.7% 15.4% 7.9%
Alfred & Plantagenet 1480 385 275 110 26.0% 18.6% 7.4%
Nation 2220 430 305 120 19.4% 13.7% 5.4%
Clarence-Rockland 4205 990 725 265 23.5% 17.2% 6.3%
Casselman 580 170 130 45 29.3% 22.4% 7.8%
Russell 3000 555 390 160 18.5% 13.0% 5.3%
Akwesasne (Part 59) 310 155 120 30 50.0% 38.7% 9.7%
Cornwall 7110 2835 2285 550 39.9% 32.1% 7.7%
Hawkesbury 1425 680 545 140 47.7% 38.2% 9.8%
UC-SDG 17425 5335 4140 1195 30.6% 23.8% 6.9%
UC-PR 14695 3615 2630 980 24.6% 17.9% 6.7%
EOHU 32120 8950 6770 2175 27.9% 21.1% 6.8%
Ontario 2353965 644970 518480 126495 27.4% 22.0% 5.4%
Canada 5816120 1612505 1262340 350465 27.7% 21.7% 6.0%

Table 4: Proportion of Single Parent Families among Census Families with Children, EOHU, Ontario and Canada, 2016


Figure 9: Proportion of Single Parent Families Among Census Families with Children, 2016

Figure 9: Proportion of Single Parent Families Among Census Families with Children, 2016

Income

Income Source

The population in the UC-PR enjoys a slightly higher rate of employment income as part of its total income (72% of total income is from employment), as compared to the UC-SDG population (65%). As for government transfer payments, respectively 12% of residents in UC-PR and 18% of residents in UC-SDG receive a government transfer. These rates are quite a bit higher than those in the rest of Ontario and Canada. Russell Township and The Nation Municipality have the highest proportion of employment income in the region (78%), while the Town of Hawkesbury and Akwesasne (Part 59) have the highest proportion of government transfer payments (26%), followed by the City of Cornwall (24%) (Table 5).

Composition of Total Income, EOHU, Ontario and Canada, 2015
Employment Income Government Transfer
Hawkesbury 56% 26%
Cornwall 59% 24%
South Dundas 63% 18%
North Glengarry 65% 18%
Alfred & Plantagenet 70% 15%
East Hawkesbury 67% 14%
Champlain 65% 14%
South Stormont 70% 13%
North Dundas 72% 13%
South Glengarry 67% 13%
North Stormont 75% 12%
Casselman 73% 12%
Clarence-Rockland 74% 11%
The Nation 78% 10%
Russell 78% 8%
Akwesasne (Part 59) 62% 26%
UC-SDG 65% 18%
UC-PR 72% 12%
Ontario 73% 11%
Canada 72% 12%

Table 5: Composition of Total Income, EOHU, Ontario and Canada, 2015


Personal Income Distribution

The population living in the EOHU’s jurisdiction is not particularly well-off. Almost 60% of individuals aged 15 years and over and in private households, earn less than $40,000 a year and half of them (32%) earn less than $20,000 a year. This mirrors the Ontario rates. However, pockets of individuals earning a very low income (earning less than $20,000 a year) are found in Cornwall (39%) and Hawkesbury (41%). As for Akwesasne, 66% earn less than $20,000 a year and 82% earn less than $40,000 a year (Table 6).

Total Income Groups, EOHU Catchment Area and Ontario, 2015
Population 15 years and over - 2015 Ontario EOHU UC-SDG UC-PR Cornwall Hawkesbury Akwesasne (Part 59)
Without Income 4.4% 3.7% 3.9% 3.4% 3.9% 3.3% 11.4%
With Income 95.6% 96.3% 96.1% 96.6% 96.1% 96.7% 89.0%
Under $10,000 14.6% 11.4% 12.1% 10.5% 12.4% 11.8% 38.6%
$10,000-$19,999 16.6% 17.6% 19.1% 15.6% 22.6% 25.6% 16.2%
$20,000-$29,999 12.8% 14.2% 15.7% 12.3% 18.1% 18.2% 9.5%
$30,000-$39,999 10.4% 12.0% 12.7% 11.1% 13.6% 13.6% 6.7%
$40,000-$49,999 9.3% 10.6% 10.6% 10.7% 10.3% 9.0% 5.2%
$50,000-$59,999 7.3% 8.4% 7.8% 9.3% 6.5% 6.3% 3.3%
$60,000-$69,999 5.7% 6.4% 5.5% 7.6% 4.4% 4.2% 3.3%
$70,000-$79,999 4.3% 4.5% 3.7% 5.5% 2.5% 2.5% 1.9%
$80,000-$89,999 3.4% 3.2% 2.5% 4.2% 1.7% 1.7% 1.0%
$90,000-$99,999 2.9% 2.7% 2.2% 3.4% 1.5% 1.3% 1.9%
$100,000 and over 8.2% 5.2% 4.3% 6.5% 2.5% 2.5% 1.9%
$100,000-$149,999 5.4% 4.1% 3.2% 5.3% 2.0% 2.0% 1.4%
$150,000 and over 2.8% 1.1% 1.0% 1.2% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5%

Table 6: Total Income Groups, EOHU Catchment Area and Ontario, 2015


Family Income

Similar to the picture revealed by the data on Personal Income Distribution (see table 6 above), close to 50% of families in private households in the EOHU’s jurisdiction are in the bottom half of Economic Family Income. This is similar to the Ontario rate. However, it’s worth noting that Cornwall and Hawkesbury have much higher rates of families living in the bottom half of Economic Family Income (Figure 10).

Figure 10: Economic Family Income Decile Group, EOHU and Ontario, 2015

Figure 10: Economic Family Income Decile Group, EOHU and Ontario, 2015

Among the different municipalities in the region, the median family income varies from a high of $79,443 per year (Russell Township) to a low of $40,166 (Akwesasne). Table 7 shows that family income varies across types of families as well. Two-parent families with children have the highest annual family income, when compared to couples without children, lone-parent families and all economic families.

Median Total Income ($) for Economic Families in Private Households, 2015
All Economic Families Couple without Children Couple with Children Lone Parent
South Stormont 87592 75706 112750 52800
North Stormont 90019 76178 109056 54592
South Dundas 76689 72192 97984 49696
North Dundas 92254 85577 110379 58752
South Glengarry 90822 79290 114483 56000
North Glengarry 74368 68124 98645 45568
East Hawkesbury 78208 69461 94208 52352
Champlain 86252 75699 114202 57472
Alfred & Plantagenet 82598 73472 107328 54272
The Nation 98389 86443 119392 58496
Clarence-Rockland 102388 88174 126615 63104
Casselman 98901 85888 133530 66816
Russell 117488 99808 141069 71680
Akwesasne (Part 59) 40166 39552 58624 18112
Cornwall 62249 62976 81137 38816
Hawkesbury 58007 56269 85589 39979
UC-SDG 75368 70814 98137 43959
UC-PR 94067 81242 121718 56602
Ontario 91089 81459 115381 54363
Canada 88306 78976 113465 53193

Table 7: Median Total Income ($) for Economic Families in Private Households, 2015


Low Income

Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) in any jurisdiction is an important indicator of its economic viability. The Census explains the LIM-AT in the following manner:

The Low-income measure, after tax, refers to a fixed percentage (50%) of median adjusted after-tax income of private households. The household after-tax income is adjusted by an equivalence scale to take economies of scale into account. This adjustment for different household sizes reflects the fact that a household's needs increase, but at a decreasing rate, as the number of members increases.

When the unadjusted after-tax income of household pertaining to a person falls below the threshold applicable to the person based on household size, the person is considered to be in low income according to LIM-AT. Since the LIM-AT threshold and household income are unique within each household, low-income status based on LIM-AT can also be reported for households (Statistics Canada, 2016).

In the EOHU’s catchment area, 14.6% of the population falls at the LIM-AT level, which is very similar to the rates in Ontario and Canada. However, the incidence varies considerably across municipalities in the region. The highest incidence is reported in the Town of Hawkesbury, followed by the City of Cornwall, where just over a quarter of the population is living at LIM-AT. Russell Township and the City of Clarence-Rockland, on the other hand, have the lowest incidence.

Total Low-Income Measure; After Tax (LIM-AT) Status, Per Age Group, 2015
% of Persons Who Are Living at or Below the LIM-AT Total 0 to 17 years 18 to 64 years 65 years and over
Canada 14.2% 17.0% 13.2% 14.5%
Ontario 14.4% 18.4% 13.7% 12.0%
EOHU 14.6% 18.5% 13.2% 15.1%
UC-SDG 17.9% 24.4% 16.6% 15.5%
UC-PR 10.5% 11.7% 9.0% 14.5%
Cornwall 26.3% 37.7% 25.5% 18.2%
Hawkesbury 27.5% 36.6% 26.7% 23.4%
North Glengarry 16.9% 19.6% 14.7% 20.3%
South Dundas 14.0% 19.8% 12.8% 12.7%
Champlain 10.7% 10.1% 9.7% 13.9%
East Hawkesbury 12.8% 12.5% 11.5% 18.1%
Alfred & Plantagenet 11.8% 13.9% 9.7% 17.4%
North Stormont 10.7% 13.2% 9.0% 14.4%
North Dundas 10.4% 13.3% 8.8% 12.8%
South Glengarry 10.7% 13.4% 9.7% 11.5%
Nation 9.1% 10.9% 7.3% 16.3%
Casselman 8.4% 6.8% 6.8% 16.5%
Clarence-Rockland 7.3% 9.1% 6.4% 8.8%
Russell 4.7% 5.7% 3.7% 8.6%
Akwesasne (Part 59) NA NA NA NA
South Stormont 10.0% 12.4% 9.2% 10.5%

Table 8: Total Low-Income Measure; After Tax (LIM-AT) Status, Per Age Group, 2015

Language

Language is important in the profile of a bilingual region such as the EOHU catchment area. In general, language is assessed by two measures: Home Language and Mother Tongue.

Home Language refers to the language that is spoken most frequently at home. About 96% of the EOHU target population reports having one home language (single response), either English (64.5%) or French (31.4%), as compared to 80% and 84% for Ontario and Canada respectively. The level of English or French as a single response varies considerably across the region, with most of the French concentrated in the northern counties. In Dundas County, more than 95.9% of the population reported English as their single response home language, whereas in Casselman and the Town of Hawkesbury, over 73% reported French as their home language. Most of the population with more than one (multiple response) home language within the EOHU region identifies the combination of English and French as home languages.

The Distribution of Home Language, EOHU, Ontario and Canada, 2016

English

Single Responses

English

Single and Multiple Responses

French

Single Responses

French

Single and Multiple Responses

Non-Official Languages
Canada 63.8% 68.1% 20.0% 21.1% 11.5%
Ontario 77.6% 83.5% 2.1% 2.6% 14.4%
EOHU 64.5% 67.0% 31.4% 33.4% 1.5%
UC-SDG 84.7% 86.9% 11.2% 12.5% 1.9%
UC-PR 38.9% 41.8% 57.1% 59.7% 1.0%
South Glengarry 79.1% 81.4% 17.0% 18.8% 1.7%
Akwesasne (Part 59) 83.7% 91.8% 0% 0% 7.8%
South Stormont 92.1% 93.5% 6.0% 7.0% 0.5%
Cornwall 84.0% 87.0% 10.0% 11.9% 3.0%
South Dundas 96.9% 97.6% 1.6% 1.8% 0.7%
North Dundas 94.9% 95.8% 3.5% 3.9% 0.7%
North Stormont 79.3% 80.8% 18.4% 19.6% 0.8%
North Glengarry 64.7% 67.2% 31.7% 33.6% 1.2%
East Hawkesbury 39.9% 42.2% 55.9% 57.9% 1.5%
Hawkesbury 19.1% 22.3% 75.5% 78.2% 2.0%
Champlain 40.1% 42.2% 56.7% 58.7% 0.8%
Alfred & Plantagenet 25.1% 27.8% 71.3% 73.8% 0.8%
Nation 36.0% 38.8% 60.1% 62.8% 1.0%
Clarence-Rockland 40.7% 44.1% 54.9% 58.1% 0.9%
Casselman 23.4% 26.0% 73.7% 76.0% 0.1%
Russell 61.2% 63.7% 35.5% 37.7% 0.7%

Table 9: The Distribution of Home Language, EOHU, Ontario and Canada, 2016


Mother Tongue, the first language that people learn to speak after they are born, is another important indicator, as it is closely related to the ethnic background of the individual. Over 97% reported a single response to mother tongue in the EOHU population, Ontario and Canada. There is a significant, but opposite difference, in the single responses of French and Non-Official Languages (NOL) populations in the EOHU region (39.2% and 4.2%), as compared to Ontario (3.7% and 26.7%). A similar contrast is observed by comparing English and French as a mother tongue for SDG (72.5% and 20.5%), as compared to PR (31.7% and 63%). On the other hand, Akwesasne mirrors Ontario’s rate of NOL. Please see Table 10 for more details.

The Distribution of Mother Tongue, EOHU, Ontario and Canada, 2016

Total

Single Responses

English

Single Responses

English

Single and Multiple Responses

French

Single Responses

French

Single and Multiple Responses

Non-Official Languages
Canada 97.6% 56.0% 58.1% 20.6% 21.4% 21.1%
Ontario 97.3% 66.9% 69.5% 3.7% 4.3% 26.7%
EOHU 97.9% 54.5% 56.5% 39.2% 41.0% 4.2%
UC-SDG 98.0% 72.5% 74.5% 20.5% 22.1% 5.0%
UC-PR 97.8% 31.7% 33.8% 63.0% 65.1% 3.1%
South Glengarry 98.1% 64.8% 66.6% 28.0% 29.6% 5.3%
Akwesasne (Part 59) 93.9% 66.3% 72.5% 0.7% 1.0% 26.9%
South Stormont 98.4% 80.6% 82.2% 15.3% 16.6% 2.5%
Cornwall 97.3% 68.8% 71.4% 22.6% 24.8% 6.0%
South Dundas 99.4% 90.9% 91.5% 4.6% 5.0% 3.9%
North Dundas 98.8% 87.9% 89.0% 7.2% 8.1% 3.8%
North Stormont 98.7% 68.6% 69.9% 26.4% 27.6% 3.7%
North Glengarry 97.9% 55.1% 57.1% 38.9% 40.8% 4.0%
East Hawkesbury 97.5% 33.5% 35.9% 59.5% 61.7% 4.5%
Hawkesbury 97.4% 15.2% 17.6% 78.0% 80.2% 4.2%
Champlain 98.1% 33.5% 35.2% 61.3% 63.0% 3.3%
Alfred & Plantagenet 98.0% 19.9% 21.9% 75.6% 77.6% 2.4%
Nation 97.9% 28.8% 30.7% 66.6% 68.5% 2.6%
Clarence-Rockland 97.3% 32.1% 34.6% 62.4% 64.8% 2.9%
Casselman 98.0% 17.4% 19.4% 79.1% 81.0% 1.3%
Russell 98.1% 52.1% 53.9% 42.7% 44.4% 3.3%

Table 10: The Distribution of Mother Tongue, EOHU, Ontario and Canada, 2016

Education

Compared to the rest of Ontario and Canada, the population in the EOHU’s jurisdiction is less educated. In the population aged 15 years and over in the EOHU region, the rates of either having no certificate, diploma or degree, or only a secondary (high) school diploma or equivalency certificate, are higher than in the rest of the province.

Conversely, the rates of the EOHU population who have completed post-secondary and higher levels of education are lower than the province. The level of educational attainments also varies considerably among the different municipalities; the Town of Hawkesbury has the highest percentage of the population that has less than a high school diploma, while Casselman and Russell Township, have the highest percentage of those with an university undergraduate degree or above (Table 11).

p
The Highest Level of Schooling for Population Aged 15 and Over, EOHU and Ontario, 2016
No Certificate, Diploma or Degree Secondary (High) School Diploma or Equivalency Certificate Post-Secondary Certificate, Diploma or Degree University Certificate, Diploma or Degree at Bachelor Level or Above
South Stormont 17.1% 29.2% 53.6% 11.7%
North Stormont 18.4% 30.7% 50.9% 11.1%
South Dundas 24.0% 30.6% 45.4% 9.9%
North Dundas 19.4% 30.3% 50.3% 12.3%
South Glengarry 18.6% 27.9% 53.6% 15.9%
North Glengarry 22.3% 30.9% 46.8% 12.4%
East Hawkesbury 17.9% 33.2% 49.0% 15.8%
Champlain 19.9% 30.5% 49.6% 14.9%
Alfred & Plantagenet 21.4% 31.2% 47.4% 10.0%
Nation 17.8% 31.2% 51.0% 14.5%
Clarence-Rockland 17.9% 31.7% 50.4% 13.9%
Casselman 21.3% 26.2% 52.5% 17.6%
Russell 14.9% 29.4% 55.7% 20.2%
Akwesasne (Part 59) 21.3% 29.4% 48.8% 6.2%
Cornwall 26.1% 33.8% 40.1% 9.2%
Hawkesbury 31.6% 32.0% 36.3% 7.4%
UC-SDG 22.4% 31.4% 46.2% 11.0%
UC-PR 19.7% 30.9% 49.4% 14.2%
EOHU 21.2% 31.2% 47.6% 12.4%
Ontario 17.5% 27.4% 55.1% 26.0%

Table 11: The Highest Level of Schooling for Population Aged 15 and Over, EOHU and Ontario, 2016

Change in Employment

There was an overall increase in the unemployment rates in the EOHU region and in Ontario between 2006 and 2016. The unemployment rate for the EOHU population aged 15 years and over increased by 1.3%, compared to an increase of 1.0% for all of Ontario. The Town of Hawkesbury showed the greatest increase in unemployment rate (3.1%) among the population aged 15 years and over (Table 15) in our area. However, the June 2019 labour force survey (Statistics Canada, 2019) shows a decrease for both the provincial and national rates since 2016.

Change in Unemployment Rate
% of Population Aged 15 Years and Over 2006 2016 Change 2019
Cornwall 7.6% 9.9% 2.3% NA
Hawkesbury 6.4% 9.5% 3.1% NA
UC-SDG 6.1% 7.8% 1.7% NA
UC-PR 4.2% 5.3% 1.1% NA
EOHU 5.3% 6.6% 1.3% NA
Ontario 6.4% 7.4% 1.0% 5.4%
Canada 6.6% 7.7% 1.1% 5.5%

Table 12: Change in Unemployment Rate


According to the National Occupational Classification for Statistics, there are higher proportions of trade, transport, equipment operators and related jobs and slightly more natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations in the EOHU region. On the other hand, there are less management, natural and applied sciences, culture, recreation and sports jobs as well as less sales and service occupations (Table 13).

National Occupational Classification, 2016
National Occupational Classification Canada Ontario EOHU SDG PR
Management Occupations 11.0% 11.3% 10.8% 10.7% 11.0%
Business, Finance and Administration Occupations 15.7% 16.1% 15.7% 13.8% 17.8%
Natural and Applied Sciences and Related Occupations 7.0% 7.4% 4.9% 4.0% 5.9%
Health Occupations 6.8% 6.4% 6.7% 7.3% 5.9%
Education, Law and Social, Community and Government Services Occupations 11.7% 11.9% 12.0% 10.6% 13.5%
Arts, Culture, Recreation and Sports Occupations 3.1% 3.2% 1.8% 1.8% 1.9%
Sales and Service Occupations 23.4% 23.4% 21.8% 23.1% 20.5%
Trades, Transport and Equipment Operators and Related Occupations 14.6% 13.3% 19.2% 20.1% 18.1%
Natural Resources, Agriculture and Related Production Occupations 2.3% 1.6% 2.7% 2.8% 2.6%
Manufacturing and Utilities Occupations 4.5% 5.2% 4.5% 5.8% 2.9%

Table 13: National Occupational Classification, 2016

Conclusion

The Social Determinants of Health are all interrelated, and therefore affect one another. As identified within the various tables in this report, the EOHU population as a whole or in part, is negatively influenced by the Social Determinants of Health to a greater degree than the rest of the province.

Income determines the quality of other social determinants of health such as food security, housing, education, and other basic prerequisites of health. Populations with less education and low literacy skills are more likely to be unemployed or work at lower paying jobs with poor working conditions and little or no benefits. Education is therefore regarded as a very important route out of poverty.

According to the literature:

The relationship between education and income is strong. Education is often referred to as an investment in human capital. In general, the more skills people have, the more employable they are. It is important to realize, however, that the relationship among education, income, and wealth is more complicated than simply more education yielding a higher income and more wealth. Factors such as natural ability and family background also impact both income and wealth and are not caused by having more education. (Scott A. Wolla and Jessica Sullivan, 2017)

Here is a comparison table that links income, education and family status for the EOHU’s jurisdiction and Ontario.

Figure 11: Comparison Between Low Education, Lone Parent Transfer, LIM-AT and Government Transfer

Figure 11: Comparison Between Low Education, Lone Parent Families, LIM-AT and Government Transfer

References

Scott A. Wolla and Jessica Sullivan (2017). Education, Income, and Wealth. Retrieved from: https://research.stlouisfed.org/publications/page1-econ/2017/01/03/education-income-and-wealth/

Statistics Canada, Census Data (2016). Income Highlight Tables, Low-income measure, after-tax (LIM-AT). Retrieved from: https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/hlt-fst/inc-rev/Table.cfm?Lang=Eng&T=306&SR=1&S=86&O=A&RPP=25&PR=0&CMA=0

Statistics Canada (2019). Labour Force Survey. Retrieved from: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/190705/dq190705a-eng.htm

Appendix

Population in Ontario and of the Eastern Ontario Health Unit by county, sex and selected age groups, 2016.

Eastern Ontatio Health Unit / Bureau de santé de l'Ontario